Answer 1 of 15: A friend is visiting Bangkok in about ten days time. She is interested in importing Thai silk and other fabrics to the UK for use in soft furnishings.This is a small operation (one-woman business). Please can anyone give contact details for any.. My picture of the day. Es gelang uns zu beobachten und zu filmen, wie das kleine Nephila Männchen der Madagassischen Seidenspinne (Nephila inaurata madagascariensis) das Spermienpaket an das Weibchen übergibt. Eine fasziniernde Nahaufnahme: nach trickreicher Annäherung bugsiert das Männchen seine vorher fabrizierte Spermatophore mit den Mundwerkzeugen in die Furche am Bauch des Weibchens This spider is not scary as you think, but keep in mind, they're animals and they're venomous Mountain Caracara, Berg-Karakara, Phalcoboenus megalopterus, Isla del sol, Titicac
Sciatic nerves from both groups and untreated contralateral sites were processed for immunohistochemistry as described previously after 10 months. Briefly, the tissue was removed, washed with PBS and then with ice-cold 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.14 M Sorensen's phosphate buffer, pH 7.4. Sciatic nerves were excised and placed in fresh fixative to achieve a total fixation time of 25 min. Tissue was rinsed several times with PBS and cryoprotected in 30% sucrose in PBS overnight at 4°C. Ten micrometer cryosections of the sciatic nerve were cut and mounted on glass (Fisher Superfrost Plus, Fisher Scientific, Inc. Waltham, Mass, USA) slides. The sections were processed for double immunofluorescent staining for detection of S100, sodium channel NaV1.6, or neurofilament (NF). The primary antibodies used were as follows: polyclonal NaV1.6 (1∶100; Alomone Labs, Jerusalem, Israel), monoclonal NF (1∶1000; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA) and monoclonal S100 (1∶300, Dako, Carpinteria, California, USA) Secondary antibodies used were as follows: goat anti-rabbit IgG-Cy3 (1∶2000; Amersham Biosciences, Piscataway, NJ, USA) and goat anti-mouse IgG-Alexa Fluor 633 or Alexa Fluor 546 (1∶1000; Invitrogen, Eugene, OR, USA).Sections were examined with conventional fluorescence microscopy (Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany). Seidenspinnen sind ca. handgross und sitzen überall auf den Seychellen. Sind aber harmlos und bleiben auch brav in ihren Netzen sitzen
At both time points the mNCV of the transplanted nerves (autologous and construct group) was significant lower than of the respective control nerves (T1: P = 0.012; T2: P = 0.027). Also the statistical comparison of the CMAP amplitudes of control to transplanted nerves (autologous and construct group) reveals a significant difference (T1: P = 0.012; t2: P = 0.018). Statistical comparison for differences of the amplitude or the mNCV between the autologous and construct group revealed no significant distinction between the groups at the 2 time points (mNCV at T1: P = ;0.924; mNCV at T2: P = 0.821; amplitude at t1: P = 0.365; amplitude at t2: P = 0.721). Statistical comparison between the amplitude from time point T1 to T2, for mNCV did not demonstrate a significant difference. No significant difference indicative of an enhanced/declined myelination or difference in conduction parameters were found between the autologous and the construct groups. Also there was no statistical evidence for an improvement of evaluated parameters from time point T1 to T2 for these groups.In relation to the ground, the webs of adults may be woven from eye-level upwards high into the tree canopy. The orb web is usually truncated by a top horizontal support strand, giving it an incomplete look. Nodes of Ranvier were observed on the regenerated axons within the nerve grafts as “breaks” in myelin staining between SC segments. A putative node of Ranvier is indicated in a single regenerated axon within the regenerated and myelinated axons within the construct (Fig. 4A). Immunostaining for the voltage-gated sodium channel NaV 1.6 demonstrated high expression of this sodium channel on the axon at these gap regions indicating the nodal nature of these regions of axon membrane and that appropriate sodium channel subtype is present on the regenerated axons (Fig. 4B).The spider silk itself is slowly absorbed in vivo. According to the published literature, the rate of absorption is dependent upon the implantation site, mechanical environment, and variables related to the health and physiological status and the diameter of the silk. Furthermore, alterations in silk processing may cause conformational changes in the protein structure potentially increasing or decreasing susceptibility to degradation. Regardless, silk protein fibers will degrade in vivo; rates are variable depending on the factors listed above . In our own studies no traces of residual spider silk could be detected in ultrastructural investigations and the degradation process must be subtle, because no signs of inflammation were present.
Further studies may enhance results obtained by implantation of our artificial nerve graft construct, optimize the support provided by the axotomized neurons and denervated distal stumps, and protect the target muscle so that may be even faster or functionally better regeneration is archived in contrast to autologous nerve transplantation. Moreover, transplantation of autologous SCs or even olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) could in principle assist more rapidly the regenerative process, but still have to be investigated in the presented context.Das Prosoma ist leuchtend weiß, silbern bis beigefarben. Die Taster sind auffällig orange bis rot gefärbt, nur der Metatarsus ist zweifarbig gelbschwarz und der Tarsus schwarz gefärbt. Die Farbe der Beine variiert je nach Fundort und Alter: Bei den sehr lang gestreckten Beine ist je nach Fundort die Coxa gelb und der Schenkelring (Trochanter) schwarz gefärbt. Das Femur ist schwarz mit je einer gelben Stelle auf der Unterseite am Anfang und Ende. Die Patellen sind schwarz gefärbt mit einer schmalen gelben Stelle auf der Unterseite beim Übergang zur Tibia. Die Tibia ist ebenfalls schwarz gefärbt und hat eine gelbe Stelle auf der Unterseite beim Übergang zum Metatarsus. Metatarsen und Tarsen sind einheitlich schwarz. Es gibt Exemplare mit rötlichen Beinen mit schwarzen Kniekehlen, wo diese gelben Partien fehlen. Das Sternum ist schwarz.
Wer Thailand zum ersten Mal besucht, wird einfach fasziniert von der unglaublichen Artenvielfalt des Landes sein. Die geografische und klimatische Lage begünstigt eine Vielzahl an unterschiedlichsten Tierarten - und die Bandbreite reicht dabei von Leoparden und Waranen über Schwarzbären und Gibbons bis hin zum wohl beliebtesten Tier in Thailand, dem asiatischen Elefanten Ten months following surgery, the animals were euthanized and the nerves removed and frozen sections were prepared for immunostaining procedures. In both, the control group (autologous nerve transplantation, data not shown) and the spider silk construct transplantation group, neurofilament (NF) immunostaining for axons indicated that axons regenerated across the suture repair site and into the nerve grafts bridging the entire length of the defect. Axons were longitudinally aligned throughout the entire length of the regenerated lesion site. Note that even fascicle structure of nerves was reestablished in regenerated nerve segments and that endogenous Schwann cells (SCs) are present within regenerated nerves in the spider silk construct group (Fig. 2A–D) as identified in the nerve by S100 staining (Fig. 2A–D, red). The SCs in the nerve construct group arose from migration as the grafts were deficient in SCs. In longitudinal sections of the regenerated nerve, SCs alignment was in close approximation with the regenerated axons and cross sections of the nerves showed that SCs were wrapped around regenerated axons indicating that endogenous migrated SCs not only migrated and survived in the construct, but also functionally ensheathed regenerated axons. The cells were positioned on the NF labeled axons (green) in the typical position of myelinating Schwann cells .
Es dürfte eine weibliche Nephila pilipes sein, eine Seidenspinne. Meist sind sie etwas größer - ich hab mal meine Kamera zum Vergleich danebengehalten und nachgemessen: Die Körperlänge. Die weibliche Spinne baut Netze mit 0,6 bis 1,0 Meter Durchmesser. Männliche Spinnen bauen keine Netze, sondern leben im Netz eines Weibchen und ernähren sich von Insekten, die für das Weibchen zu klein sind und von den Überbleibseln der Beute des Weibchens. The present study addresses the issue of potentially enhancing peripheral nerve regeneration in long distance nerve defects in a large animal model. Urania 4/83 Leben auf Außenstationen. von Urania und eine große Auswahl ähnlicher Bücher, Kunst und Sammlerstücke erhältlich auf ZVAB.com
Nephila spiders display large sexual dimorphism in size, with females being greatly larger than males. Debate exists as to whether this is a result of male dwarfism or female gigantism. Smaller males may be selected for due to the presence of competition for mating. Smaller males are quicker and more nimble, allowing them to be able to catch the females more easily, as well as to escape when threatened. Larger males may have to wait for the female to come close due to their slower speed. Larger females may have been selected for as a result of males using mating plugs upon copulation. Larger individuals reduce the success of these plugs, allowing for multiple mating and reducing the risk of genital mutilation. Gigantism in females is also associated with fecundity, as larger individuals can produce more eggs and therefore increase reproductive success. This page was last edited on 21 December 2018, at 00:28. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply Nephila clavipes fasciculata — Goldene Seidenspinne Goldene Seidenspinne (Weibchen unten, Männchen oben) Systematik Unterordnung: Echte Webspinnen (Araneomorphae) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Navigation. Home; Über mich. Kamera-Ausrüstung; Kontakt; Tiere. Arthropoda (Gliederfüßer) Arachnida (Spinnentiere) Amblypygi (Geißelspinnen) Araneae (Webspinnen Es wurde untersucht, warum die Spinnen in der Natur nicht von Vögeln gefressen werden; unter Laborbedingungen fraßen viele Vögel die Spinnen. Die Laborvögel versuchten aber nur einmal eine Spinne im Netz von Nephila zu fressen. Der Grund liegt in den klebrigen Netzen der Seidenspinnen, die gleichzeitig als Schutz vor Vögeln dienen. Sobald ein Vogel einmal in ein Netz geflogen ist, bleibt ein großes Netzstück am Vogelkörper hängen und der Vogel braucht eine lange Zeit, bis er sein Gefieder davon befreit hat. Vögel, die einmal diese Erfahrung gemacht haben, scheuen Seidenspinnennetze in Zukunft. Animals of Australia. Western grey Kangaroo, Westliches Graues Riesenkänguru, Macropus fuliginosus, Heirisson islan Nephila pilipes is a species of golden orb-web spider. It can be found in Japan, China, Vietnam, Taiwan, Singapore, Myanmar, Indonesia, Thailand, Laos, Philippines.
Die Gegend um Lovina, der Norden der Insel und Bali allgemein, sind voll mit Wasserfällen der unterschiedlichsten Art. Manche sind touristischer als Andere, manche erfordern eine längere Wanderung, während man andere einfach über eine kleine Treppe erreicht Die Seidenspinnen gehören zu den größten Radnetzspinnen der Welt. Ihre Netze sind so stabil, dass ich darin kleine Vögel verfangen. Seidenspinnen sind giftig. Für den Menschen sind sie.
This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigatio Seidenspinne (Nephila pilipes) in Thailand. Überall in Thailand begegnet man den schwarzen Seidenspinnen mit gelben Streifen an den Beinen. Es sind große Spinnen die riesige Spinnennetze weben um Insekten zu jagen. Die in Thailand lebende Riesenradnetzspinne baut außerordentlich stabile Netze. Der Biss dieser Seidenspinne ist nicht weiter. Weibchen haben einen lang gezogenen Hinterleib (Opisthosoma), welcher je nach Alter und Größe sehr unterschiedlich gefärbt ist. Dies ist möglicherweise auch Ursache dafür, dass für diese Spinnenart viele Synonyme existieren. Das Opisthosoma ist in einem jüngeren Alter schwarz bis olivfarben und trägt je nach Größe zwei oder vier gelbe Längsstreifen. Zuerst bilden sich die äußeren zwei Längsstreifen zurück und bei zunehmendem Alter die inneren zwei Längsstreifen. Mit zunehmendem Alter und Größe ist das Abdomen fast einheitlich graubraun bis olivfarben gefärbt; nur in der vorderen Hälfte nahe dem Vorderleib (Prosoma) hat das Opisthosoma einen schwarzen Querbalken, wo häufig auch Reste der gelben Längsstreifen als feiner gelber Querstreifen zu erkennen sind. Das Zurückbilden dieser Streifen kann je nach Individuum unterschiedlich schnell gehen. So findet man jüngere Tiere, die nur noch zwei gelbe Längsstreifen haben und ältere, die immer noch alle vier Längsstreifen besitzen. Die Unterseite hat mehrere gelbe Punkte, nur die Region der Spinnwarzen ist rot gefärbt. Die Spinne schützt sich ähnlich wie die Goldene Seidenspinne vor Überhitzung. Dazu streckt sie das Abdomen der Sonne entgegen, was den Einfallswinkel der Sonnenstrahlen erhöht. Ebenso wird Flüssigkeit in den Cheliceren bearbeitet, was ebenfalls für Kühlung sorgt.
Yellow threads of their web shine like gold in sunlight. Carotenoids are the main contributors to this yellow color, but xanthurenic acid, two quinones, and an unknown compound may also aid in the color. Experimental evidence suggests that the silk's color may serve a dual purpose: sunlit webs ensnare bees that are attracted to the bright yellow strands, whereas in shady spots, the yellow blends in with background foliage to act as a camouflage. The spider is able to adjust pigment intensity relative to background light levels and color; the range of spectral reflectance is specifically adapted to insect vision. Nephila spiders display large sexual dimorphism in size, with females being greatly larger than males. Debate exists as to whether this is a result of male dwarfism or female gigantism.  Smaller males may be selected for due to the presence of competition for mating.Smaller males are quicker and more nimble, allowing them to be able to catch the females more easily, as well as. INTRODUCTION. Australasia, including Australia, Zealandia (New Zealand and New Caledonia) and New Guinea, has long been considered an important area of arachnid diversity, with approximately 3700 species of spiders described from Australia alone ().As a relatively isolated island since its separation from Antarctica with the breakup of Gondwana, the unique biota of Australia is hypothesized to.
The golden silk orb-weaver targets many different organisms as prey, ranging from small flies and beetles to larger cicadas and locusts. As a result of their strong web structure, small birds and bats can also become trapped and fed upon. Whilst most of the captured prey is relatively small compared to Nephila, the majority of biomass consumed comes from larger, rarer prey. Prey larger than 66% of the captor's size accounts for just 16.5% of prey captured, but 85% of prey consumed, indicating the spider is selective in its feeding habits. The webs of most Nephila spiders are complex, with a fine-meshed orb suspended in a maze of non-sticky barrier webs. As with many weavers of sticky spirals, the orb is renewed regularly if not daily, apparently because the stickiness of the orb declines with age. When weather is good (and no rain has damaged the orb web), subadults and adults often rebuild only a portion of the web. The spider removes and consumes the portion to be replaced, builds new radial elements, then spins the new spirals. This partial orb renewal is distinct from other orb-weaving spiders that usually replace the entire orb web. The web of Nephila antipodiana contains ant-repellent chemicals to protect the web.
Trotz seiner imposanten Größe, ist die goldene Seidenspinne eine positive Präsenz in einem Hof, weil es kleinere Bugs Ärgernis isst. Scorpions . Die Notwendigkeit für mehr Leistung in den 1990er Jahren sah Anlagen in China und Thailand eingestellt. Arten von Doc Martens Seidenspinne (Nephila sp.) Zwischen 1990 und 2006 wurde die Gattung Nephila Leach, 1815 zu der Familie der Echten Radnetzspinnen (Araneidae) gezählt. Im Jahr 2006 übernahm der World Spider Catalog die Einteilung in die revidierte Familie der Seidenspinnen (Nephilidae) auf der Basis der Argumentation von Matjaž Kuntner
. 5 Zentimeter langen Kokon. Gemessen wurde durchschnittlich zwischen 2000 und 3000 Eier mit einem durchschnittlichen Gewicht von insgesamt etwa 1,2 Gramm. Nephila spiders vary from reddish to greenish yellow in color with distinctive whiteness on the cephalothorax and the beginning of the abdomen. Like many species of the superfamily Araneoidea, most of them have striped legs specialized for weaving (where their tips point inward, rather than outward as is the case with many wandering spiders). Their contrast of dark brown/black and green/yellow allows warning and repelling of potential predators to which their venom might be of little danger. Contextual translation of goldene hochzeit into English. Human translations with examples: double, golden, golden, wedding, nunta;), weddings, gold ink, das goldene H. multipuncta from Thailand (G. Hor miga, personal communication), as w ell as personal observations of H. multipuncta in Sri Lanka (1993) and H. etruscilla in Ja v a (1996)
Im Netz des Weibchens kommen sehr häufig mehrere Männchen vor, die gleichzeitig versuchen, sich mit dem Weibchen zu paaren. Die Männchen interagieren dabei miteinander, in dem sie bei zu starker Annäherung mit den Beinen kämpfen und sich beißen. Nur das siegreiche Männchen paart sich mit dem Weibchen. Dazu klettert das Männchen auf die Unterseite des Abdomens des Weibchens und pumpt seinen Samen aus seinen Bulben in die Geschlechtsöffnung des Weibchens. Dieser Vorgang dauert relativ lange. Paarungszeiten von zehn bis siebzig Minuten wurden gemessen. Es wurde noch nie beobachtet, dass das Weibchen das Männchen nach einer Paarung frisst. Das Männchen verlässt nach der Paarung das Weibchen. Once they are juvenile, Nephila spiders inhabit their individual webs, then begin their growth by the molting process. The time between molts is called an instar and seven to 12 of these can occur depending on food availability. Ecdysis, the shedding of the exoskeleton, occurs through the formation of a soft exoskeleton inside the current one. Once the old exoskeleton is shed, the new, larger one begins to harden. Ecdysis occurs when the spider's mass becomes too great for the current exoskeleton to support. Male spiders seek out females for copulation and live on their webs. When mating season arrives, both males and females stop molting and remain the same size for the remainder of their lives. Golden orb-weavers reach sizes of 4.8–5.1 cm (1.5–2 in) in females, not including legspan, with males being usually two-thirds smaller (less than 2.5 cm, 1 in). In 2012, a large individual was photographed killing and consuming a 0.5-m-long brown tree snake in Freshwater, Queensland. Species from Taiwan have been known to reach over 130 mm (5.1 in), legspan included, in mountainous country. In 2014, a study discovered that golden orb-weavers living in urban areas, particularly areas of a high socioeconomic status, grew larger and carried more eggs than those in their native habitats. A number of possible explanations were suggested, such as increased food supplies due to artificial light or lack of predators and parasites. This study demonstrates that spider silk enhances Schwann cell migration, axonal regrowth and remyelination including electrophysiological recovery in a long-distance peripheral nerve gap model resulting in functional recovery. This improvement in nerve regeneration could have significant clinical implications for reconstructive nerve surgery.Experiments were performed in accordance with the German Animal welfare guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals. The Hannover Medical School and the Nds. Landesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit approved all animal protocols. 24 adult sheep (50–80 kg) were used for this experiment. The sheep were anesthetized with xylazine (xylazin 2%, CP Pharma, Burgdorf, Germany) with a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg and ketamine (ketamin 10, Selectavet, Weyern Holzolling, Germany) with a dosage of 4 mg/kg intravenously applied. Anaesthesia was maintained using ketamine bolus injections of 2 mg/kg i.v. The sciatic nerves were exposed near the piriformis tendon and a nerve defect was induced over a distance of 6 cm. In 12 animals the nerve was switched from proximal to distal and resutured into the nerve as autologous transplant, in 12 animals the spider silk/vein construct was placed by microsutures into the defect.
The genus name Nephila is derived from Ancient Greek, meaning "fond of spinning", from the words νεῖν (nein) = to spin (related to nema νήμα "thread") + φίλος (philos) = "love". Thailand pflanzt Millionen Bäume mithilfe von ″Samenbomben″ das von der komplexen Spinnennetz-Architektur der Seidenspinne inspiriert ist. Das Design führt zu einer neuen Kategorie von.
9781436790048 1436790042 Black Gowns and Red Coats or Oxford in 1834 - A Satire, in Six Parts (1834), George Cox 9781514497807 1514497808 By the Side of the Tracks, Roslyn May 9780199547029 0199547025 The Oxford Handbook of Human Resource Management, Peter Boxall, John Purcell, Patrick M. Wright 9781847703330 184770333X Official Hollyoaks Babes Calendar 200 The Nephila pilipes' web is vertical with a fine irregular mesh and not symmetrical, with the hub is usually nearer the top. Rather than egg sacks being hung in the web, a pit is dug which is then covered with plant debris or soil.Nephila pilipes — Nephila pilipes, Weibchen Systematik Unterordnung: Echte Webspinnen (Araneomorphae) Teilordnung … Deutsch WikipediaNephila do not seem to form either beneficial or harmful relationships with humans. Females often construct their webs using human structures as a base for support strands due to their stability. Individuals are often found in urban and suburban environments due to the protection from predation and greater prey availability. As they weave their webs in bushes and near flowers, they might present a nuisance for gardeners or flower pickers. Some nests near fruits may repel or destroy known pests, such as Tephritid fruit flies, without the need to use insecticides. Spiders may bite humans if provoked but more often flee if confronted.
.Die große und sehr auffallend gezeichnete Art wurde 2001 zur Spinne des Jahres gewählt Most important optimization pointers for www.medica.de. This is a prioritized list for www.medica.de of the issues, ordered ascending, and starting with the biggest quick wins for your website. The biggest quick win is the opportunity that requires the least effort to implement compared to the optimization payoff in effect Several studies published in the recent literature were concerned about the potential application of silk fibroin fibres derived from Bombyx mori silk. Yang et al. used oriented silk fibroin filaments successfully to guide nerve regeneration along a 10 mm gap in a sciatic nerve defect model in rats achieving nearly as good results as autologous nerve transfer . The use of silk fibroin proteins, however, is a basically different approach to the use of spider silk as technically processed material is used instead of native biomaterial. This difference stand for advantages as for disadvantages as well as the processing allows for technical adaption like tube formation by gel spinning  or combination with other materials  but might also be more reliant on modifications to enhance cytocompatibility than native spider silk . The Northern Golden Orb Weaver or Giant Golden Orb Weaver (Nephila pilipes) is a species of golden orb-web spider. It can be found in Japan, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore. The first, second and fourth pairs of legs of juvenile females have dense hairy brushes, but as the spider matures these brushes disappear.
Although axonal regeneration in long nerve gaps, in which most experiments describing defects up to 40 mm in rodent models, can be observed, recovery of function may be insufficient if the axons fail to reach target. Various in vivo tests were carried out for the repair of small (5 mm), medium (15 mm) and long (45 mm) peripheral nerve size defects in rodents. Especially, mechanical stiffness of PCL and the lack of flexibility of the guide to rat movements impaired the repair of 45 mm-long defects in 8-month period . Nephila pilipes ist eine Art aus der Gattung der Seidenspinnen (Nephila).Es werden zwei Unterarten unterschieden. Das Verbreitungsgebiet der Nominatform N. pilipes pilipes erstreckt sich von China über die Philippinen bis nach Australien.Die Unterart N. p. malagassa kommt ausschließlich endemisch auf Madagaskar vor. Die Art gehört zu den größten Seidenspinnen und wird auch als Nutztier. Stay safe and healthy. Please practice hand-washing and social distancing, and check out our resources for adapting to these times Predation of Nephila species is relatively uncommon; when it does occur, the main group affected are the juvenile individuals. The major predators are birds, but wasps and damselflies also prey upon smaller juveniles. Man nennt sie im deutschen Sprachgebrauch Hundertfüßer, und wer solche Krabbeltiere entdeckt, sollte einen großen Bogen machen. Normalerweise leben sie unter Steinen an Land, doch nun wurde bekannt: es gibt auch eine Skolopender-Spezies in Thailand, die schwimmen kann..
Thailand had about 100,000 rai of land for mulberry cultivation by 94,000 farmers in 2012, up from 80,000 in 2011. soar - to increase suddenly by a large amount soaring silk price A promising alternative to conventional grafting is the use of artificial nerve grafts, of which the Integra Neurosciences Type I collagen sheath (NeuraGen™, Integra Neuroscience; Plainsboro, NJ, USA) is commercially available for treating short nerve defects clinically. Artificial nerve grafts are usually in the form of nerve tubes and conduits , . Clinical trials demonstrated that tubular repair of 3–5 mm nerve gaps with silicone tubes yielded functional recovery at least as good as routine microsurgical repair , .
The ENG traces (Figure 6 A to D) demonstrate a similar appearance with temporal dispersion, prolonged onset latencies and reduction of the amplitude of the compound motor action potential (CMAP) for autologous graft (Fig. 6A) and spider silk construct (Fig. 6B). ENG recordings from the control (right) temporal dispersion and prolonged onset latencies resulted in a reduced motor nerve conduction velocity (mNCV). Electromyography (EMG) revealed spontaneous pathological activity (fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves) in all examined left side gastrocnemius muscles for both the autologous or construct groups. In all right side gastrocnemius muscles the EMG was normal (Figure 6 E, F). EMG data were not further analyzed.Nephila pilipes is a species of golden orb-web spider. It can be found in Japan, China, Vietnam, Taiwan, Singapore, Myanmar, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, Papua New Guinea, and Northern Australia. It is commonly found in primary and secondary forests and gardens. Females are large and grow to a body size of 30-50mm, with males growing to 5–6 mm.The precise mechanism responsible for functional recovery after implantation of our spider silk constructs in experimental models is not fully understood. Several mechanisms including axonal sparing, sprouting and plasticity associated with novel polysynaptic pathways, recruitment of endogenous SCs and remyelination have been suggested to contribute to improvement in function in large nerve defects bridged with guidance material for nerve regeneration. In both groups of regenerated nerves, after autologous nerve as well as spider silk construct transplantation, viable SCs could be observed after ten months indicating the endogenous migration and invasion of SC into the implant. Importantly, the newly formed nodes of Ranvier of the regenerated axons expressed sodium channel subtype NaV1.6 , the normal predominant nodal sodium channel. This indicates that engraftment of endogenous Schwann cells into injured nerve can reconstitute myelin and appropriate sodium channel organization necessary for proper impulse conduction. Glaubrecht, M. 1991. Die Seidenspinne Nephila clavipes auf den Bermudas. Aspekte einer erfolgreichen Kolonisation. Natur und Museum, 121(8): 247-253. Frankfurt a.M. Glaubrecht, M. 1991. Gesangsvariation der Goldammer (Emberiza citrinella) in Norddeutschland und auf den Dänischen Inseln. Journal für Ornithologie, 132(4): 441-445. Bonn
While we raise issues in terms of potential problems which need to be overcome before translation to a clinical study using their approach, this is not to detract from the importance of these experimental findings. Clearly, there is a strong need for establishing reliable methods for nerve substance defects in clinical practice.Nephila — Seidenspinnen Seidenspinne (Nephila sp.) Systematik Klasse: Spinnentiere (Arachnida) … Deutsch WikipediaThe measurement of the amplitude of the autologous control group at the second time point revealed values (n = 3) ranging from 16.9 mV to 27.5 mV with the median at 27.5 mV; the amplitude range of the construct control group (n = 5) was 13.2–25.9 mV with the median at 22.1 mV. The range of the amplitude from the autologous transplanted group (n = 3) was 1.2–8.4 mV with the median at 1.2 mV; the amplitude of the construct transplanted group (n = 4) ranged from 0.8 mV to 11.0 mV with the median at 4.6 mV (one nerve in this group was not measurably, because of tearing out at the proximal nerve suture).At time point T2 the mNCV of the autologous control group (n = 3) ranged from 106.0 m/s to 115.0 m/s with the median at 115.0 m/s; the mNCV range of the construct control group (n = 5) was 110.0–124.0 m/s with the median at 114.0 m/s. The range of the mNCV from the autologous transplanted group (n = 3) was 27.0–104.0 m/s with the median at 104.0 m/s; the mNCV of the construct transplanted group (n = 4) ranged from 40.0 m/s to 105.0 m/s with the median at 90.0 m/s (one nerve in this group was not measurably, because of tearing at the proximal nerve suture).Nephila is a genus of araneomorph spiders noted for the impressive webs they weave. Nephila consists of numerous species found in warmer regions around the world. They are commonly called golden silk orb-weavers, golden orb-weavers, giant wood spiders, or banana spiders.
Development of transplantation complications like proximal tearing of the transplanted construct in one sheep at time point T2 were readily identified with the electrophysiological evaluation by an absence of CMAP at proximal stimulation (proven by adjacent surgical exploration). In this mentioned sheep, a neuroma formed at the T2 time point which was been suspected based on the electrodiagnostic evaluation, because of a drop of the mNCV from 90.0 m/s at the first measurement to 27.0 m/s.At time point T1 the amplitude of the autologous control group (n = 3) ranged from 19.2 to 27.1 mV with the median at 21.3 mV; the amplitude range of the construct control group (n = 5) was 12.3–21.4 mV, the median 16.1 mV respectively. The range of the amplitude from the autologous transplanted group (n = 3) was 0.7–2.2 mV with the median at 0.9 mV; the amplitude of the construct transplanted group (n = 5) ranged from 0.6 to 1.3 mV with the median at 0.7 mV.. They then live on a communal web, eating dead siblings and web debris for around a week before dispersing to make individual webs. Buy Animals web spider poster, Animals web spider art prints, framed art and canvas. Discover art by unique artists wordwide on ARTFLAKES.com
Additional fossil species are known from the Cenozoic. In 2012 Geratonephila burmanica was described from the Cenomanian aged Burmese amber, Wunderlich 2015 synonymised Geratonephilia with Nephilia tenuis, a species from the Dominican Amber, as he considered it unlikely that the amber was actually Burmese in origin. Animals were kept in accordance with the guidelines of the German Animal Welfare Act. The protocol was approved by a review committee of the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. Venules were taken from veins of the lower extremities of pigs with weight of 50 kg. The venules had a diameter of approximately 3–4 mm and a length of 6 cm. The venules were excised and freed from adherent fat. Afterwards veins were washed in PBS (phosphate-buffered saline, Biochrome, Berlin, Germany) and incubated in trypsin/EDTA for 24 hrs (Biochrome, Berlin, Germany). The procedure was repeated after washing with PBS for two weeks. Then the venules were washed with 0.1% tert-octyphenyl-polyoxyethylen (Triton X-100, BioRad, Munich, Germany) for 3 h. All steps were conducted at 37°C under continuous shaking. After extensive washing the venules were histologically controlled by hematoxilin-eosin and trichrome stainings and frozen at −80°C until usage. Cicada, Tosena melanoptera - Thailand See more. Tumblr. Beetle Insect Beetle Bug Insect Art Cool Insects Bugs And Insects Especie Animal Mundo Animal Longhorn Beetle Mantis Religiosa. Red-Legged Golden Orb-Web Spider / Seidenspinne (Nephila inaurata) Karongwe Bush Camp, Karongwe Game Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa HBW We thank Sabrina Jahn, Andrea Lazaridis and Elke Mallon for excellent technical assistance. We also thank Hossein Naghilouyi Hidaji for spider breeding and silk harvest.Nephila species also create caches of food for storage, which can be found above the hub of the web and contain up to 15 prey items. These items are arranged in a line vertically and are wrapped in silk to reduce dehydration. Caches are created and grow when prey is readily available and more biomass is available for consumption than is required by the spider. The purpose of caches is to have a backup food source when prey is scarce and occasionally to provide bait to attract more prey to the web. Nephila species may also respond to food shortages by moving their webs, but this is a response to longer periods of prey scarcity than cache creation. Web moving is seen as a result of environmental change, whereas caches occur from environmental fluctuation.
Surgical reapposition of peripheral nerve results in some axonal regeneration and functional recovery, but the clinical outcome in long distance nerve defects is disappointing and research continues to utilize further interventional approaches to optimize functional recovery. We describe the use of nerve constructs consisting of decellularized vein grafts filled with spider silk fibers as a guiding material to bridge a 6.0 cm tibial nerve defect in adult sheep. Flickr photos, groups, and tags related to the nephila Flickr tag .14 M Sorensen's phosphate buffer, pH 7.3), cut into 2 mm segments, notched to indicate orientation, post-fixed with 1% osmium (Polysciences, Warrington, PA) for 4 hr, dehydrated, and embedded in Epox−812 (Ernest F. Fullam, Latham, NY) using standard plastic embedding protocols. Semithin sections (1 µm) were collected of plastic embedded tissue and counterstained with methylene blue and azure II (0.5% each in 0.5% borax) to identify areas of interest.
Nephila species are frequently parasitized by Argyrodes, a genus of very small black-and-silver spiders that are kleptoparasitic. As many as a few dozen may infest a single Nephila web to feed from the host spider's captured prey. The frequent rebuilding or abandoning of webs by Nephila may be a tactic for controlling Argyrodes. Spiny orb-weaver spiders of the genus Gasteracantha also inhabit the webs of Nephila as kleptoparasites. Da diese Spinnenart je nach Fundort, Größe und Alter eine andere Körperfärbung aufweist, wurde sie mehrmals taxonomisch erfasst. Es kommen gemäß Platnick mehrere Synonyme vor. Das bekannteste Synonym ist Nephila maculata. Die Spinne (German for The Spider) was a post-World War II organisation thought to have helped certain Nazi war criminals escape justice. Its existence is still debated today. It is believed by some historians to be a different name (or a branch) of the Nazi German ODESSA organization established during the collapse of the Third Reich, similar to Kameradenwerk, and der Bruderschaft, devoted. The usage of spider silk fibers as guidance material for nerve regeneration is a novel and unique idea. The spider dragline silk from the spider Nephila clavipes has crucial unique characteristics regarding nerve regeneration guidance: the spider dragline silk can be easily harvested and silk fibres are generally long-term degradable by a proteolytic degradation induced by a foreign body response. The tensile strength of the spider silk is up to 4.8 GPa (comparable to Kevlar 49), the lightweight 1.3 g/cm3, toughness and elasticity is up to 35%, and it is thermally stable up to ∼250°C , . In vitro experiments demonstrated remarkable adherence of Schwann cells to the spider silk with cell proliferation . Constructs consisting of decellularized vein grafts filled with spider silk as nerve guidance material showed complete biodegeneration over time without challenging tissue reaction . These spider silk constructs have been used as an artificial nerve conduit to promote Schwann cell growth and regeneration of sciatic nerves in a rat model of peripheral nerve injury and repair . The efficacy of nerve constructs consisting of decellularized veins filled with spider silk fibers as guidance material in large animal nerve injury models and in long distance defects (>5.0 cm) has not been studied.Whilst the geographic distribution of Nephila is large, many habitat similarities are seen between these locations. A warm and reasonably wet climate is generally preferred, as these are some of the environmental cues that induce spiderling hatching. Locally, spiders look for relatively dense vegetation where webs can be set up in areas that insects will regularly fly through. Urban environments are also attractive due to the large prey concentrations and lower levels of predation.
(A–D) Electroneurography traces at time point 1 (6 months post-surgery) of the left (A and C) or right tibial (B and D) nerve. (A) CMAP's of left tibial nerve; autologous nerve transfer; (B) corresponding CMAP's of the right control tibial nerve (C) CMAP's of left tibial nerve with spider silk construct; (D) corresponding CMAP's of right/control tibial nerve. The upper traces in each panel are after distal stimulation and the lower traces after proximal stimulation. The calibrations in D correspond to A–D. Stimulus current is indicated next to each trace. E. Electromyographic recordings at time point 1 (6 months post surgery) of left gastrocnemius muscle (autologous nerve transfer) (F). Corresponding electromyographic control recordings of right gastrocnemic muscle from the same animal. Note the fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in (E).To assess the extent of axonal regeneration, axon counts of myelinated profiles within the transection site and at regions proximal and distal were be compared between construct-transplanted group and autologous nerve transplanted controls. Quantitative morphometric analysis of remyelination was conducted by sampling remyelinated axon density in step sections collected every 0.25 mm along the rostral caudal axis of the nerves and integrating across distance essentially as described previously .Aranea longipes Aranea maculata Aranea pilipes Aranea sebae Epeira chrysogaster Nephila maculata Nephila fuscipes Epeira fuscipes Epeira doreyana Epeira caliginosa Nephila ornata Epeira penicillum Epeira harpyia Nephila chrysogaster Meta ornata Nephila pecuniosa Nephila aurosa Nephila procera Nephila sulphurosa Nephila tenuipes Nephila submaculata
Mücken in Thailand (Moskitos) Nervig, aber grundsätzlich nicht anders als bei uns. In den Randgebieten Thailands ganz im Westen und im äussersten Nordosten tauchen gelegentlich noch Fälle von Malaria auf und ab und an auch eine Form des Denguefiebers - momentan sogar verstärkt in den südlichsten Provizen Thailands 13.06.2019 - Impressionen von meiner Fraser Explorer Day Tour, einer Tagestour mit Ocean Rafting zu den Whitsunday Islands und einem Trip mit Billy Tea Safaris in den Daintree-Nationalpark. Weitere Ideen zu Rafting, Nationalpark und Australien The diversity of adult Trichoptera was surveyed at Mae Tao and Mae Ku watersheds, northern Thailand during July 2011 to May 2012. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between physicochemical parameters of water quality and adult Trichoptera for monitoring of water quality Spider silk fibres were collected from adult females of the genus Nephila kept at our local animal facility. For experimental practice we used the major-ampullate-dragline, which serves the spider as security rope and building material. The dragline silk is secreted by the major ampullate glands and exits from spigots on the anterior lateral spinnerets. The spiders were gently fixated with a compress. We mechanically pulled out the fibres with a spider silk winding machine after stimulation of the major ampullate gland and collected them on spools. On average, we gained 150 m length of silk per hour. The spider silk was sterilized and consequently instantly prepared for usage.
In den Netzen befinden sich häufig bis zu vierzig Diebsspinnen der Gattung Argyrodes. Es handelt sich hier um kleine Spinnen, die einen Teil der Beute von der Seidenspinne stehlen. There have been several efforts in the past to produce garments from Nephila silk although none commercially viable. These include two bed hangings that were shown at the 1900 Paris Exhibition. In 2004 a textile designer, Simon Peers, and an entrepreneur, Nicholas Godley managed in three years work and using 1.2 million Golden silk orb-weavers (collected in the wild and released some 30 minutes later after they produced the silk) to produce a shawl that was exhibited at the American Museum of Natural History in 2009. By 2012 they managed to produce a second, bigger garment, a cape, that, together with the shawl, were exhibited at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda MD, 20894 USA
(A) EDxNCV: Box plot diagram of the in vivo measurement of the motor nerve conduction velocity (mNCV) at time point T1 (after 6 months post surgery) and at time point T2 (after 10 months post surgery). ⊤ = maximum, ⊥ = minimum, — = median, □ = mean. A box includes 50% of the values. P values of Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon-test for paired samples are indicated in the figure. Values of P≤0.05 were considered significant. (B) EDxAMP: Box plot diagram of the in vivo measurement of the compound muscle action potential amplitudes at time point T1 and at time point T2. ⊤ = maximum, ⊥ = minimum, — = median, □ = mean. A box includes 50% of the values. P values of Mann–Whitney–Wilcoxon-test for paired samples are indicated in the figure. Values of P≤0.05 were considered significant. Heute habe ich entdeckt, dass, - wenn man nur genau hinschaut - die eigentlich regungslos erscheinende Nephila Seidenspinne, doch eine ständige Bewegung zeigt: ihren Herzschlag, und den kann man an der Hautoberfläche ablesen (siehe Video unten). Und wenn man mitzählt und die Zeit stoppt kann man sogar ihren Puls messen. Spiders are notified that potential prey has been caught in the web through vibrations along strands, and these can be followed to the prey location on the web and be used to estimate prey size.
Madagaskar-Seidenspinne Nephila inaurata madagascariensis Afrikanische Seidenspinne Nephila senegalensis Golden Web spider Baumvogelspinne Poecilotheria miranda Blaue Thai-Stabschrecke Ramulus nematodes Philippinen-Gespenstschrecke Sungaya inexpectata Hemipter (A) Axon counts lesion site and at regions proximal and distal were compared between both groups. Plastic embedded coronal sections of autologous nerve transplant (B and D) and spider silk construct (C and E) at 10 months post surgery. The improved organization of myelinated axons after transplantation of the spider silk construct could be demonstrated by light (C) and transmission electron microscope (E). All spider fibers were degraded in a subtle manner, since an inflammation has never been seen. Scale bar for C and D in D = 3 µm, for E and F in F = 1 µm.
Diese Spinnenart gehört zu den größten nicht zu den Vogelspinnen gehörenden Spinnenarten der Welt. Die Weibchen werden vermutlich drei bis fünf Zentimeter lang. Die von Michael H. Robinson und Barbara Robinson dokumentierte Körperlänge eines ausgewachsenen Weibchens betrug 4,21 Zentimeter, wobei die Cephalothorax-Länge 1,41 Zentimeter betrug. Bei einem Bein des ersten Beinpaars wurde die Länge von 8,6 Zentimeter und bei einem Bein des vierten Beinpaares eine Länge von 7,05 Zentimeter ermittelt. Die Männchen sind vergleichsweise winzig und durchschnittlich vermutlich 0,5 Zentimeter lang. Die größte von Michael H. Robinson und Barbara Robinson dokumentiere Körperlänge eines Männchen betrug 0,76 Zentimeter. 5 Institute of Cell Biology in the Center of Anatomy, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany, Die Weibchen von Nephila pilipes werden im südpazifischen Raum als Fischnetzhersteller genutzt. Es werden Bambusrohre als Rahmen aufgestellt und die Spinne macht in diesem Rahmen ihr Netz, welches später für den Fischfang verwendet wird. For the ultrastructural analysis thin sections (70 nm) on Formvar-coated copper grids were stained with saturated uranyl acetate and lead citrate and analysed in the Zeiss 902 transmission electron microscope. Representative micrographs were arranged with Adobe Photoshop 5.0.
Die Seidenspinne hat einen bis zu 6 cm grossen Körper und kommt so ziemlich in allen Tropengebieten der Welt vor. Kam mir auch so bekannt vor und habe mal in alten Fotos aus Thailand gekramt, dort hatte ich ebenfalls ein grosses Exemplar abgelichtet und die Beiden sehen sich sehr ähnlich Das Kurzvideo ist fertig, das den Ablauf der Nephila-Paarung zeigt; intime Einsichten in das Leben der Nephila inaurata madagascariensis, der Madagaskar Seidenspinne. Das kleine Männchen hat schon einige Hürden zu überwinden, bevor er sein Spermienpaket in der Furche am Bauch des Weibchens deponieren kann The development of effective treatments for peripheral nerve injury with a substance defect injury is of considerable medical interest. Severe trauma, tumor infiltration or neuroma resection can cause severe peripheral nerve damage and can lead to permanent destruction or even complete functional deficit of the injured extremity. At the moment, gold standard is the surgical intervention with nerve suturing or when required nerve transplantation. But often the results are still disappointing and methods to improve functional outcome are desirable and necessary. A special challenge regarding nerve repair are long distant nerve defects.Additionally to the ENG recordings of the CMAP the bipolar recording electrode was used to perform a needle electromyography (EMG) of tibial nerve innervated muscles (e.g. gastrocnemius muscle) on each side of the pelvic limbs under the same anaesthesia at the two time points. Original traces were stored in the electrodiagnostic device.(A) showing tibial and peroneal nerve (arrow head). (B) Nerve defect in tibial nerve of 6 cm and bridging of nerve defect lesion with vein/spider silk construct which is sutured between proximal and distal nerve stump of the 6 cm nerve defect in adult sheep.
1 Department of Plastic, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany, 2 Clinic for Pigs, Small Ruminants, Forensic Medicine and Ambulatory Service, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Hannover, Germany, Electrophysiological recordings were obtained at 2 different time points (T1 = 6 months and T2 = 10 months post surgery) in each control nerves (n = 8), and autologous (n = 3) and construct (n = 5) engrafted groups. The motor nerve conduction velocity (mNCV) and the amplitude of the compound motor action potential (CMAP) for the three groups are summarized in Figure 5A and B. At time point T1 the mNCV of the autologous control group (n = 3) ranged from 98.0 to 118.0 m/s with the median at 102.0 m/s; the mNCV range of the construct control group (n = 5) was 97.0–120.0 m/s, the median 112.0 m/s respectively. These values are in accordance with the literature . The range of the mNCV from the autologous transplanted group (n = 3) was 76.0–95.0 m/s with the median at 90.0 m/s; the mNCV of the construct transplanted group n = 5) ranged from 65.0 to 102.0 m/s with the median at 97.5 m/s.
Trichonephila clavipes (or "banana spider") found most commonly in Central America was formerly classified as Nephila clavipes. Nephila spiders produce large asymmetric orb webs up to 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter. Nephila species remain in their webs permanently, so have a higher predation risk. The golden silk orb-weaver is named for the yellow color of the spider silk used to construct these webs. The nerve constructs were compared to autologous nerve grafts. Regeneration was evaluated for clinical, electrophysiological and histological outcome. Electrophysiological recordings were obtained at 6 months and 10 months post surgery in each group. Ten months later, the nerves were removed and prepared for immunostaining, electrophysiological and electron microscopy. Immunostaining for sodium channel (NaV 1.6) was used to define nodes of Ranvier on regenerated axons in combination with anti-S100 and neurofilament. Anti-S100 was used to identify Schwann cells. Axons regenerated through the constructs and were myelinated indicating migration of Schwann cells into the constructs. Nodes of Ranvier between myelin segments were observed and identified by intense sodium channel (NaV 1.6) staining on the regenerated axons. There was no significant difference in electrophysiological results between control autologous experimental and construct implantation indicating that our construct are an effective alternative to autologous nerve transplantation. Cách để Nhận diện nhện chuối. Tên gọi nhện chuối được dùng để chỉ một số loài nhện và chi nhện khác nhau sống khắp nơi trên trái đất. Chúng có tên gọi địa phương là nhện chuối vì có màu như quả chuối hoặc sống trên cây chuối. Vì vậy, tù.. Nephila pilipes is a species of golden orb-web spider. It can be found in Japan, China, Vietnam, Taiwan, Singapore, Myanmar, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, India, Papua New Guinea, and Northern Australia.It is commonly found in primary and secondary forests and gardens. Females are large and grow to a body size of 30-50mm, with males growing to 5-6 mm
Adjacent to one face of the main orb, a rather extensive and haphazard-looking network of guard-strands may be suspended a few cm distant across a free space. This network is often decorated with a lumpy string or two of plant detritus and insect carcasses clumped with silk. This "barrier web" may function as a kind of early-warning system for incoming prey or against spider-hunting predators, or as a shield against windblown leaves; it may also be remnants of the owner's previous web. At least one reference explains the suspended debris-chain as a cue for birds to avoid blundering into and destroying the web. Contextual translation of goldene into English. Human translations with examples: golden, golden, gold ink, clouds, colomna, das goldene, allseeing, shrimp scad Huge Spider in Khao Lak near a Street. Shot with a Canon 600D and using the Kit EF-S 18-55mm 1:3,5-5,6 IS II Flickr photos, groups, and tags related to the mordedura Flickr tag
In contrast to CMAP measurements and the determination of the mNCV the collected EMG data did not reveal auxiliary information beyond the already clinical visible evidence of tibial nerve paresis on the operated sides in both groups. For this reason further analysis of this data was not accomplished. Nephila inaurata madagascariensis, die Seidenspinne aus Madagaskar, unser freilebendes Haustier hat am Morgen wieder mal Eier gelegt; einen ganzen Haufen, größer als der eigentliche Spinnenkörper. Ich vermute, die Eier vergrößern ihr Volumen nachdem sie aus dem Körper ausgetreten sind Another possible use of Nephila silk lies in tissue engineering. A study from the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover reports that processed Nephila silk is an excellent scaffold material thanks to its biocompatibility, mechanical strengths, and its property to promote cell adhesion and proliferation. In particular, the silk acts as a suitable guiding material for peripheral nerve regrowth.
4 Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, Attacus atlas side view thailand.jpg 1920 × 1856; 1,76 MB Attacus atlas Smiltynė.jpg 3507 × 2630; 7,77 MB Attacus atlas, Bornholms Sommerfuglepark 33.jpg 2592 × 1952; 1,13 M Find the perfect nephila stock photo. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. No need to register, buy now
Questions arise in terms of the potential translation of these experimental findings to a clinical setting. It is certainly advantageous to avoid donor side morbidity from harvesting a nerve for transplantation. Another problem is the availability of donor nerve tissue. In large brachial plexus injuries for example, where multiple nerve transplants might be necessary, the limitation of available autologous nerves for transplantation is hindering optimal outcome, it has to be triaged which function is most important. With a nerve bridging material resulting in similar regeneration and remyelination as the gold standard autologous nerve transplantation these limitations would be finally resolved. Most results described in previous studies have shown peripheral nerve repair with nerve conduits in nerve defects with 2 cm or less substance defects. The challenge is to bridge larger nerve substance defects. Here, we could demonstrate in an extensive nerve defect model that with our spider silk/vein construct axonal regeneration in a large animal model is successful. The applied electrophysiological measurements emerge as a useful non invasive method for monitoring progress of peripheral nerve repair and for detection of aberrant conditions which might develop (e.g. neuroma formation) in a clinical setting.The spider silk was cut to the appropriate length and pulled through the acellularized venules until filling out one quarter of the venule diameter. The constructs were kept in Hanks balanced salt solution (HBSS, Biochrome Germany) and engrafted at the same day.Nephila pilipes ist eine Art aus der Gattung der Seidenspinnen (Nephila). Es werden zwei Unterarten unterschieden. Das Verbreitungsgebiet der Nominatform N. pilipes pilipes erstreckt sich von China über die Philippinen bis nach Australien. Die Unterart N. p. malagassa kommt ausschließlich endemisch auf Madagaskar vor. Die Art gehört zu den größten Seidenspinnen und wird auch als Nutztier gebraucht. Dabei werden vor allem die Netze als Fischernetze und ihr Fleisch als Nahrung verwendet. Nephila spiders change their body positioning relative to the sun to maintain internal temperatures at an optimal level. As ambient temperatures increase, the spiders position themselves so the abdomen shades the cephalothorax from the sun. Spiders may also hang from their hind legs as a result of the heat due to a loss of hydrostatic pressure. Conversely, as temperatures cool down, the spiders position themselves perpendicular to the sun to retain as much heat energy as possible. When ambient temperatures reach extreme highs (above 40 °C), they may leave their webs and seek shade in the surrounding environment. Finden Sie Hohe Qualität Seidenhemden Hersteller Seidenhemden Lieferanten und Seidenhemden Produkte zum besten Preis auf Alibaba.co The gastrocnemius muscle started to atrophy after sciatic nerve injury, and the size of the gastrocnemius muscle on the operated side decreased in sheep of both the autograft and construct grafted groups. Atrophy was qualitatively observed from physical examination, and quantitatively from weight comparison between normal and the operated groups including the autologous and construct implanted animals: gastrocnemius weight reduction could be observed in the transplant group contrast to uninjured control group, but no statistically significant differences in weight of the muscle were measured between autologous and construct implanted animals (Fig. 4C) ten months after surgery and nerve defect regeneration. This is in accordance to the axon counts where the spider silk construct resulted in comparable myelinated axon counts as the autologous nerve transplant as described in Figure 3A–C.